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日: 2022年1月23日

African Continental Free Trade Agreement Intellectual Property

Hackbarth, S., The Opportunities are Vast in a Potential U.S.-Kenya Free Trade Agreement, available at: , accessed June 12, 2021.Search in Google Scholar In recognition of the central importance of intellectual property (IP) protection in today`s economy and the benefits of continental COOPERATION in the field of IP, the AfCFTA will establish a protocol on intellectual property property, a first draft of which has been published. “The AfCFTA reflects both the new African model of what a trade agreement should look like and some aspects of the Multilateral Legal Framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The AfCFTA has a strong development focus and includes economic and social development and legal harmonization among its objectives, taking into account aspects of the AU`s Agenda 2063, which prioritizes inclusive social and economic development and links Africa`s growth and inclusion to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). [6] The first phase of the AfCFTA negotiations focused on the Framework Agreement establishing the AfCFTA and the negotiations on the Protocols on Trade in Goods and Services and Dispute Settlement. A second phase is devoted to negotiations on investment, competition policy and intellectual property. The second phase is expected to be completed by June 2021, but it could be delayed by the pandemic. The Agreement establishing the AfCFTA (the “Agreement”) was signed on March 21, 2018, but entered into force on March 30, 2018. May 2019 after the deposit of instruments of ratification by 24 countries in force. As of 19 April 2021, 54 countries had signed the agreement, while 36 countries (including Nigeria) had deposited their instruments of ratification with the Chairperson of the African Union Commission (AUC). In particular, trade under the AfCFTA agreement officially began on 1 January 2021, subject to negotiations on trade protocols and instruments. In early March 2021, following the ratification of the Agreement Establishing the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), the Nigerian National Board of Trade launched a consultation process on issues that represent the country`s priorities as it prepares to participate in negotiations on the Protocol to the AfCFTA Intellectual Property Rights Agreement (IPR).

We have drafted a position paper as part of this process, focusing on important policy considerations that should constitute Nigeria`s negotiating priorities on intellectual property rights. This article describes some of the key points of our brief and concludes by emphasizing that the overall political focus should be on promoting initiatives that promote Nigeria`s national interest while recognizing and taking into account the ideals of inclusion, openness and cooperation in the context of the AfCFTA. In this context, the document recommends that Nigeria prioritize negotiations in recognition of its most important economic assets in the copyright sectors and focus on strengthening the institutional capacity of its patent and technology transfer offices so that Nigeria can effectively exploit the relevant trade-related aspects of IP flexibility on the ground. Nigeria can learn from South Africa by adopting the appropriate legal framework for benefit-sharing and the overall protection of traditional knowledge and genetic resources. Relevant guidance is provided by the Swakopmund Protocol for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Expressions of Folklore, the 2015 Arusha Protocol for the Protection of Plant Breeding and the African Union Model Law on the Protection of the Rights of Local Communities, Farmers, Breeders and on the Regulation of Access to Biological Resources. We are still leaving the starting doors, but Africa is already accelerating. While the implementation of this historic trade agreement takes time and effort, protecting Africa`s spirit and aspirations for increased trade and prosperity over the next decade and beyond should be at the heart of policymakers, the private sector and the international community. The World Bank agrees. In a July 2020 study on the economic and distributive effects of the AfCFTA, he highlighted the transformative potential of the agreement and noted that its full implementation could lead to the lifting of an estimated 100 million people out of poverty.

But how did the AfCFTA come about? What are their key elements and what role will intellectual property rights play in achieving their objectives? Now that all of Africa has signed the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) and 29 countries have ratified it (as of January 2020), the region is currently implementing a continental single market for goods and services and laying the groundwork for the establishment of a continental customs union. Many on the continent see the AfCFTA as a model of investment, economic diversification and job creation that will shape Africa`s future in the coming years, help achieve the goals of the 2030 SDGs and consolidate progress on the African Union`s Agenda 2063. In fact, African countries with a combined GDP of more than $2.3 trillion and a population of $1.2 billion – most of which are under the age of 30 – will benefit significantly from intraregional trade. More recently, the international and global economy has been driven by innovation, creativity, knowledge and technology, each of which is fundamentally supported by intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property rights (IPR). The agreement has three levels: the first is the AfCFTA agreement itself, which serves as a framework agreement. The second includes protocols on trade in goods, trade in services, dispute settlement rules and procedures (dispute settlement), investment, competition policy and intellectual property rights (INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS). .

Agreement between Two Parties for Money

Whether you are the lender or the borrower, clear documentation of important information in written form gives you more confidence. In this article, you will learn everything you need to know about payment agreements. Key components, types of agreements, to certain steps on how to create your own document. This is because employees occupy key positions where access to confidential information, such as . B the trade secrets of a company, is inevitable in order to be acquired by employees. In such cases, when the employee takes the dismissal, he takes the confidential information with him in a certain way. The problem here is when a competitor can hire the employee and receive the employee`s classified information, including customers and clients of the former employer, giving the former employer any advantage. Another consideration may be that the employee can start their own business, which can lead them to compete with the former employer, including stealing from customers who offer them a better deal, to the detriment of the former employer. An incomplete clause or agreement is one by which a party, usually an employee, agrees not to hire or form a similar business that could run against the employer and help protect the employer from such incidents. This simple PDF template for non-compete obligations secures possible problems that may arise in the above cases. Use this non-competing PDF template and edit it to your liking and competitors.

You may choose between numerous real estate, commercial and other legal documents, including: The DEBTOR hereby represents and warrants that both parties have established a payment schedule in this Agreement to secure default in the manner provided herein without further interruption, notwithstanding any additional costs for processing such planning. This statement includes the borrower`s confirmation that they owe the lender a certain amount called default. It is important for the borrower to recognize that the gap actually exists. Therefore, even if the payment agreement is executed, nothing can relieve the borrower of liability. This means that the borrower is required to make payments to the lender in accordance with the original plan that both parties had established. When it comes to money matters, it`s always a smart decision to be very careful. No matter how well you know the person you`re lending money to, take steps to make sure you`re protected. The preparation of this document is essential, especially if your agreement collapses. That is the process of these agreements.

Typically, this process is used when the loan amount is huge or the loan needs to be taken out by a financial institution. In the case of personal loans between friends, family members or colleagues, the borrower and the lender can draft the document, agree on the conditions and affix their signatures. Now let`s move on to the components of such a document so that you know what to write when designing such a document. Divorce is a formal declaration that dissolves a marriage and legally exempts both spouses from any marital obligation. A divorce agreement is the final written legal agreement between a husband and wife that documents the terms of the divorce. These are numbers and they can be analyzed to determine how fair or unfair a settlement offer would be. Once the divorce agreement has been signed by both spouses and recognized by the court as fair and equitable, it is included in a document that officially dissolves the marriage. This settlement requires the advice of a professional with financial experience in a divorce agreement. While lawyers are essential to the process, they generally lack the financial skills to assess the long-term consequences of the divorce agreements they help negotiate.

Reference may be made to any of the following options:Divorce AgreementSparation Agreement or Separation and Property Settlement AgreementIn accordance with client, support and ownershipIntermediat Separation AgreementConparliament AgreementOw Property Settlement Agreement (PSA) and Matrimonial Settlement Agreement (MSA). The purpose of the settlement of divorce would also focus on determining which spouse receives which property, responsibilities after the end of the marriage, and the division of matrimonial property that a couple acquired during the period of marriage. It is very important to set a goal in the event of a divorce. In addition to breaking the marital bond, many things should be considered, such as; Real estate, assets, finances and children, if the couple has any. Both parties need to be realistic in setting goals. Consider current and future needs. Divorce resolution is important to avoid conflicts with financial concerns. Possible unpaid financial claims can come back to disrupt life even years after a divorce is concluded. These arrangements must include: property, shares, savings, money, debt and pension division, and matters relating to children.

After receiving your completed agreement, be sure to sign it or have it notarized if necessary! After accepting the balance due, the terms of the payment plan must be recorded in a simple agreement. Often, no collateral is pledged, as the incentive for payment by the debtor is either interest-free payments or a discounted total amount. Depending on the loan chosen, a legally valid contract must be drafted specifying the terms of the loan agreement, including: CONSIDERING that the DEBTOR and the CREDITOR, through the goodwill of both parties, wish to guarantee the amount of the debt by entering into a new agreement the amount of which is $3,000.00 fixed in a payment agreement structured on the terms contained herein; It is also very important to indicate the total amount of money that has been borrowed. This is done so that the amount is clear to both parties and neither party can claim anything else. If there is no interest, add this information as well. You can include it in the total amount or in the fixed payments to be paid according to the agreed schedule. A payment agreement is a legally binding document between two parties – the lender and the borrower. This is done when a lender lends a certain amount of money to a borrower and accepts the terms of payment. The contract must contain information on how and when payments are made. It should also include any penalties or fees discussed and agreed upon by both parties.

Here are some reasons why you should create such a document: Such an agreement is crucial for both parties to fully understand their rights and obligations under the loan. Even if the loan is only $100, a payment agreement must be made immediately to ensure that you, as a lender, are repaid on time. A payment agreement template, also known as a payment agreement contract, is a document that contains relevant information about a loan. If you plan to lend money or borrow money from someone, you should create such a document. It explains the terms of the loan, the amount of interest, the parties involved, and the details of when the loan will be repaid. Creating the document and having it notarized means that the parties involved agree with everything that is written. Here are some steps and tips that can help you create your document: Also specify the exact date on which the loan will be paid in full. This is also the date of the last payment. This component is essential for both parties to know when the agreement will be finalized. If the loan has not been paid by the specified date, both parties will need to have a discussion about what to do next. Interest (usury) – The costs associated with borrowing money.

A payment agreement should always be in writing and include information about the type of payment to be made, when it is to be made, how it will be paid and what will happen if the borrower fails to meet the terms set out in the agreement. Establish a good relationship with the tenant using this boat license rental model. This agreement contains all the terms, conditions and rules that must be followed by the tenant during the rental period. The most important feature of any loan is the amount of money borrowed, so the first thing you want to write on your document is the amount that can be on the first line. Then enter the name and address of the borrower and then the lender. In this example, the borrower is in New York State and asks to borrow $10,000 from the lender. An agreement between two parties on payment is also known as a payment agreement, promissory note, or instalment payment agreement. It is mutually agreed between these parties that payment shall be made from one party to another. In general, a payment agreement is required for any type of loan granted by one party to another. Once the agreement is approved, the lender must disburse the funds to the borrower. The borrower will be held in accordance with the signed agreement with any penalties or judgments to be decided against him if the funds are not repaid in full. I Owe You (IOU) – The acceptance and confirmation of money lent from one (1) party to another.